is the term for overactive tissue within the thyroid gland causing an overproduction of thyroid hormones (thyroxine or "T4" and/or triiodothyronine or "T3").
Hyperthyroidism is thus a cause of thyrotoxicosis,the clinical condition of increased thyroid hormones in the blood.
It is important to note that hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are not synonymous.
Thyroid hormone is important at a cellular level, affecting nearly every type of tissue in the body.
On the other hand, a lack of functioning thyroid tissue results in a symptomatic lack of thyroid hormone, termed hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism often eventually leads to hypothyroidism
In Graves disease, which is the most common form or cause of hyperthyroidism, the eyes may look enlarged because the eye muscles swell and push the eye forward. This can only be resolved surgically by orbital decompression. Sometimes, one or both eyes may bulge. Some patients have swelling of the front of the neck from an enlarged thyroid gland (a goiter). Because hyperthyroidism, especially Graves’ disease, may run in families, examinations of the members of a family may reveal other individuals with thyroid problems.
Signs And Symptoms:
Major clinical signs include weight loss (often accompanied by an increased appetite), anxiety, intolerance to heat, hair loss, muscle aches, weakness, fatigue, hyperactivity, irritability, hypoglycemia, apathy, polyuria, polydipsia, delirium, tremor, pretibial myxedema, and sweating.
Additionally, patients may present with a variety of symptoms such as palpitations and arrhythmias (notably atrial fibrillation), shortness of breath (dyspnea), loss of libido, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.ong term untreated hyperthyroidism can lead to osteoporosis.
These classical symptoms may not be present often in the elderly.
Neurological manifestations can include tremors, chorea, myopathy, and in some susceptible individuals (particularly of Asian descent) periodic paralysis.
An association between thyroid disease and myasthenia gravis has been recognized.
The thyroid disease, in this condition, is autoimmune in nature and approximately 5% of patients with myasthenia gravis also have hyperthyroidism.
Myasthenia gravis rarely improves after thyroid treatment and the relationship between the two entities is not well understood.
Some very rare neurological manifestations that are dubiously associated with thyrotoxicosis are pseudotumor cerebri, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and a Guillain-Barré-like syndrome
Minor ocular (eye) signs, which may be present in any type of hyperthyroidism, are eyelid retraction ("stare"), extra-ocular muscle weakness, and lid-lag.In hyperthyroid stare (Dalrymple sign) the eyelids are retracted upward more than normal (the normal position is at the superior corneoscleral limbus, where the "white" of the eye begins at the upper border of the iris). Extra-ocular muscle weakness may present with double vision. In lid-lag (von Graefe's sign), when the patient tracks an object downward with their eyes, the eyelid fails to follow the downward moving iris, and the same type of upper globe exposure which is seen with lid retraction occurs, temporarily. These signs disappear with treatment of the hyperthyroidism
- Grave's disease
- Toxiv Thyroid Adenoma
- Toxic Multinodular goitre
- Sub thyroiditis
- Post Partum Thyroiditis