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Tuesday, May 15, 2012

Instruments used In Gynecology and Obstetrics

Here are the Instruments used In Gynecology and Obstetrics with uses, Indications, contraindications and snippet of procedures.

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Artery Forceps
This is a hemostat used for clamping bleeding vessels. It is also used for grasping tissue at the time of operation( Opening and closing peritoneum) . It is also used to hold stay sutures.

Allis' Forceps
This instrument is used for grasping tough structures like Rectus sheath or fascia in operations like tubectomy,LSCS ,abdominal hysterectomy.

Ayre's Spatula
Is Used for taking Pap Smear for screening of carcinoma cervix.
Made of wood so that cells can adhere to its porous surface.
The long end is inserted into cervical canal and rotated in 360 degrees.
The exfoliated cells obtained are smeared on glass slide and fixed in Koplicks jar which contains ether and alcohol in equal amount. The other broad end is used for obtaining cells from lateral vagina for knowing the hormonal status.

Babcock's Forceps
This instrument is used for grasping tubular structures like fallopian tube in tubectomy in modified Pomeroy's operation , ureter ,appendix etc. The tip is atraumatic as there are no sharp tooth.

Band Applicator for Lap TL
Tip of Band Applicator for Lap TL
Tip of Band Applicator for Lap TL

This instrument is used for applying silastic bands to fallopian tubes in laparoscopic tubal ligation. The tube is identified and grasped in the ampullary region by opening the prongs. The prongs are pulled inside the sheath and the loaded ring is then pushed over the tube. The prongs are then released. The part of the tube above the band looks blanched.
The bands are loaded just prior to grasping the tube.

Cusco's Speculum
Self retaining double bladed vaginal speculum.
Used in OPD for routine examination.
Because of limited opening only few procedures like taking of Pap smear ,
insertion and removal of Copper T can be done.

Doyen's Retractor

This instrument is used for retracting bladder during abdominal operations like LSCS , abdominal hysterectomy , laparotomy.

Deaver's Retractor for retraction of deep structures
Right Angle Retractor used for Tubectomy
Episiotomy Scissors
This is used for giving episiotomy. Episiotomy is given in primi ( rigid perineum) , before forceps or vacuum , in breech delivery ,in preterm delivery..
Episiotomy is usually given under local anesthesia ( 1% Xylocain) at the time of crowning of head. The sharp blade of the instrument is inserted in the vagina protecting fetus by two fingers of the doctor. The cut is given medio laterally ( Midline or Lateral episiotomy is usually not given)
The episiotomy is sutured in 3 layers with no 0 ( one zero) chromic catgut. The first layer is vagina starting with the apex. The second layer is perineal muscles and the third layer is skin.
The episiotomy can extend if proper perineal support is not given. Extension to anus is seen in median episiotomy.

Foleys Catheter
This is a self retaining catheter most commonly used for drainage of the urinary bladder after surgery.
It is used in operations like Abdominal , Vaginal Hysterectomy , Wertheim's Hysterectomy, Repair of Vesico vaginal fistula.
It is also used for second trimester MTP for extra amniotic instillation of ethacredyl lactate .
It is also used for diagnosis of incompetent cervix and for sono salpingo graphy

It has a bulb below the tip. This can be inflated by normal saline. It has two channels. One for inflating bulb and has a valve
The other channel is for drainage of urine to which urobag is attached. No 14 or 16 are used in adult. No 8 for sono salpingo graphy.

Green Armytage Forceps

This forceps is used as a hemostat in caesarean operation. As the tips are broad wide area can be compressed.
In LSCS the cut uterine edges bleed, this forceps is applied to the two angles and lower and upper edge of the incision.
The common indications for LSCS are fetal distress in first stage, CPD , abnormal presentations like transverse lie , brow , breech in primi ,previous two scars on the uterus.

Hegar's Dilator
Its a long rod like instrument with gentle curve and tapering tip. It is used for dilatation of the cervix in procedures like D&C , D& E , Fothergills operation , Hysteroscopy , Cervical Stenosis , Primary dysmenorrhoea.
It can cause perforation if too much force is used. Very large dilatation can cause cervical incompetence.

Kocher's Forceps (Clamp)

This instrument is used for holding pedicles in hysterectomy. The tips of the blades have teeth so that the tissue does not slip.
The blades can either be straight or curved. This instrument is used in hysterectomy to clamp pedicles which are then transfixed.
It is also used for salpingectomy in ectopic or oophorectomy in ovarian mass. This can also be used for clamping umbilical cord of new born at the time of delivery or for artificial low rupture of membranes ( ARM).

Karman's Syringe ( Menstrual Regulation)
This syringe is used for Menstrual Regulation and endometrial aspiration. The capacity is 50 ml. The tip has a rubber attachment with valve.
The piston when withdrawn can be locked. It creates negative suction. To the rubber attachment at the tip, plastic cannula is attached and is inserted in uterine cavity. The valve is released and with negative pressure contents of the uterine cavity are sucked. This should be repeated till the cavity is empty. Complication of the procedure is incomplete evacuation because of limited suction pressure.

Rubin's Cannula

This cannula is used for tubal patency test for infertility like HSG ( Hystero salpingo graphy ) or Chromo perturbation in laparoscopy. In HSG radio opaque iodine ( Urographin) is used ( it is colorless to naked eye but on X Ray is seen as opaque white). For Laparoscopy Methylene Blue dye is injected through the cannula. This cannula has a rubber guard which needs adjustment. It prevents backward leak of the dye. These tests are also performed after tuboplasty .

Leech Wilkinson's Cannula

This cannula is also used for tubal patency . It is straight instrument with conical tip. This cone is screwed into the cervix. Then dye is injected.

Combined Uterine manipulator and cannula for laparoscopy
Needle Holder
This instrument is used for grasping needle at the time of suturing. The inner surface of tip has serrations and a small grove for firm grasp of the curved needle. The box joint is placed very close to tip to give adequate pressure because of the lever effect.

Ovum Holding Forceps

This instrument is used for removing the products of conception in  inevitable , incomplete abortion and in MTP operations.
The tip of this instrument is rounded cup like to avoid perforation and to hold large tissue. This instrument has no catch . This is to avoid perforation of wall.

Purandare's Dilator
This cervical dilator has a guard and long tapering end. The guard helps in preventing insertion beyond that length and protect against perforation.
Here in the picture it is numbered 2,3,4,5 representing diameter in mm from the tip to the guard.

Pinard's Fetal Stethoscope
This is used for auscultation of fetal heart. The tapering rim is applied to ear and the other side to mothers abdomen.
With other instruments available for auscultation of fetal heart, this is now rarely used.

Sims' Anterior Vaginal Wall Retractor
This instrument is used with Sim's Speculum. Its a long instrument with blunt loops at both the ends making an angle for easy  visualization of cervix and vagina, especially useful in case of cystocele.

Sims' Speculum
Sims Speculum is used for inspection of vagina and cervix in the OPD. It retracts posterior vaginal wall.
For complete visualization anterior vaginal wall retractor must be used.
Use in Gynae OPD for following procedures : Taking Pap Smear , Insertion and removal of Copper T , Colposcopy ,Taking swabs, Hyseterosalpingography (HSG)
Use in Gynae Operations : D&C , Cervix Biopsy , Vaginal Hysterectomy , Fothergills Operation, Repair of Vesico vaginal fistula, Hysteroscopy.
Use in Obstetrics  : For inspection ( Bluish discoloration in early pregnancy, local cause for threatened abortion, local cause in APH), First trimester MTP by suction curettage . In second trimester MTP by Ethacredyl Lactate. Os thightening or cervical encircalage ,
Removal of os thightening stitch at the onset of labor or at 38 wks. Inspection for suspected rupture of membranes.
After forceps delivery to trace for cervical tears.
Advantage : Wide area for inspection. Instrumentation is easy
Disadvantage : Needs assistant (Not self retaining) , Must bring pt to edge of the table.

Sponge Holder / Sponge holding forceps
This instrument is used for holding sponge or a gauze piece for painting the area before operation.
This is also used for tissue dissection when used as sponge on holder .
This also used for grasping the cervix is obstetrics in Os tightening operation. Second trimester MTP ( to hold the cervix before insertion of Foleys catheter). In exploring cervix after forceps delivery ( three sponge holding forceps are used). In LSCS this can be used instead of Green Armytage for clamping the bleeding edges of uterine incision)

Suction Curette

This instrument is used for first trimester MTP, suction of vesicular mole. It is numbered as per outer diameter. The size of the cannula selected is equal to no of weeks of pregnancy. The tip is blunt ( to prevent perforation ) below the tip are two sharp openings for suction and curetting the cavity. Usually suction force of 60 mm Hg is applied. Rotational and to-fro movements are done to empty the cavity. Grating sensation and gripping of the cannula indicates the procedure is complete.

Shirodkars Cerclage Needle
This is specially designed needle for putting stitch around the cervix. The needle is inserted around the cervix through the opening made in vagina .
The suture material ( Merciline tape) is threaded on the eye present at the tip and withdrawn. Another needle with curvature in reverse direction is used for other side. The knot is placed post. Vagina is closed.

Chromic catgut ( One Zero ) on round body needle
This is an absorbable suture manufactured from gut of large animals. The chromic catgut is brown in color and is treated with chemicals to delay the absorption up to 7 days. This suture material is used most commonly for suturing of episiotomy, perineal tares, tubal ligation with modified Pomeroy's Method, for closing peritoneum in LSCS and hysterectomy.

Plain Catgut
This is a rapidly absorbable suture (absorbed in 7 days ) , yellow in color , used sometimes for approximation of sub cutaneous fat

Vicryl ( One Zero on Round Body)
This is a synthetic delayed absorbable suture colored violet. This get absorbed after 90 days. It causes less tissue reaction than catgut and maintains strength for longer time than catgut.
It is used for suturing uterus in LSCS and tying pedicals in Hysterectomy.

Ethilon (No One on Curve cutting needle)
The ethilon is a synthetic non absorbable suture used for rectus sheath and skin.( cutting needle is used for tough structures)
and ethilon no 1 on round body needle is used for cervical circlage.

Surgical Blades/ Scalpel
Trocar and Cannula
Trocar is put in to the cannula and then inserted into abdominal cavity for laparoscopy. It is also called port ( port of entry to telescope and other instruments.) It is numbered as per outer diameter. 10 mm is used for operative telescope, 7 mm is used for Band Applicator for Tubal Ligation, 5mm is used for other hand instruments like grasper etc. A Reducer sleeve is available to use large size port for small instrument.
It has a trumpet valve to prevent gas leak. On one side there is opening for connecting it to gas ( CO2 or Air).

Umbilical Cord Clamp
Umbilical Cord Cutting Scissors
Uterine Curette
Use for scraping endometrial cavity to obtain sample for histopathology. The tip is angled by about 15 degrees for easy scraping.
The tip comes in two shapes. Sharp and Blunt. Sharp curate is used in gynecology and blunt in pregnancy check curettage.
Diagnostic D&C is done commonly for Menorrhagia, Endometrial Carcinoma, Infertility ,Tuberculosis of endometrium .
It also has secondary beneficial advantage of reducing the bleeding in menorrhagia.

Uterine sound
Its a long instrument with blunt tip ( To avoid perforation) About 5 cms from the tip its bend to make angle of 30 degrees.
It has marking on it for measurements. ( Bladder sound has no markings )
The angle helps to negotiate curvature of the uterus (Anteflexion). It is used for measuring uterocervical length , length of the cervix (for diagnosing supra vaginal elongation of the cervix),To feel for any pathology inside the cavity like fibroid ( Sub mucus, polyp) Congenital anomalies like septa or bicornuate ut., Adhesions or synachae. To feel for the misplaced IUCD.

Bladder Sound
It is long instrument with gentle curve ( not angled like uterine sound) and has no markings on it.
It is used to define extension of bladder cystocele and vaginal hysterectomy.

This instrument is used for grasping the cervix ( Usually anterior lip of the cervix is grasped)
Its a long instrument with gentle curve so that the line of vision is not obstructed. The tip of the blades have 3-4 teeth to hold and steady the cervix in procedures like Insertion of IUCD , Cx Biopsy D&C, First trimester MTP with Suction Evacuation. Cx Biopsy , Fothergills operation, Vaginal Hysterectomy
Posterior lip of the cervix is grasped for post. colpotomy .
Since the teeth are sharp it is not used in pregnancy as it may cause cervical tares and lacerations. Instead sponge holding forceps is used to grasp the cervix.


This instrument is straight instrument and has only single bite for grasping the cervix.
It is used for Hysterosalpingography , Hysteroscopy, Laparoscopic chromo pertubation.

Vaccum Extractor (Vantouse) - Sialastic Cup
Vaccum Extractor (Vantouse) - Metallic cup
Alternative to forceps delivery. Causes less trauma to mother and fetus. Pre requisites almost same. Available in two forms : Metal cup and sialistic cup. Can be used when rotation is not complete. Produces artificial caput called chignon. Not to be used in pre term delivery.

Varies Needle
This needle is used for creating pneumo peritoneum ( Putting Air or CO2 in the peritoneal cavity) for laparoscopy. The tip of the needle is special. The inner round tip retracts when meets the resistance ( Like entering skin and Rectus sheath) and allows outer sharp bevel to pierce. After entering the peritoneal cavity (When the resistance is lost) the inner round tip comes out with spring action. This prevents damage to inner structures
Before inserting it is grasped like a dart at its base. The test for successful entry into peritoneal cavity is
1. Drop of saline gets sucked.
2. Nothing comes after aspiration with syringe

Wrigley's Forceps

Obstetric forceps for out let forceps delivery. It has pelvic curve. Parts of the forceps are blades ( which has windows or fenestrate for firm grip of the head) ,Shank , Lock( English lock for Wriglys forceps) , Handle.
Simson's Short forceps is straight forceps with only cephalic curve and no pelvic curve.
Some of the Pre requisites for forceps application :
  • Dilatation of the cervix must be full (10cm)
  • Station of Vertex at plus 2 or plus 3 (for outlet forceps)
  • membranes should be ruptured 
  • pelvis must be adequate
  • Uterine contractions must be good
  • Rotation of vertex near complete
  • Local anesthesia and episiotomy must be given
  • Bladder should be empty 
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Find yourself a great midwife. I was in the USAF, I gave birth to my eldest daughter in 1977 at Elmendorf AFB hospital, located in Anchorage, Alaska. Major SAC base ergo the medical was superior. I chose a midwife, Mjr. Messer, please remember I stated 1977, she gave me advice for a healthy pregnancy : no aspirin, if achy use Tylenol only, never use alcohol, do not drink soda in particular diet, no drugs certainly, and as a woman in the military she was sympathetic to my situation. I was military the psychotic husband civilian. So much empathy from her, and I had a 4 hour labour natural, 8.8 lbs. She's 36 now, she has a 163 IQ and has two degrees and is an Indie film maker. 1989 my second and last child, midwife 15 minutes away, the Obstetrician who owned the practice never saw me except for the initial exam. I had my 2nd daughter within 20 minutes of arriving, natural, no drugs, she's a professional Ice Hockey player in Turkey, she's a dual citizen, all 99 lbs.of her, feet as fast as a cock-a-roach(Philly pronunciation), trained by the power skating coach for the Philadelphia Flyers. He saw her on the ice playing open hockey with all men, asked by him if she needed a new power skating coach. She said of course, he was contracted to the Flyers and she was the first woman and last he coached. He and 52 of her closest professional hockey players died in a plane crash in the Baltic's. In both circumstances the Obstetrician's were men, when they had to see me if my midwives were delivering a baby, they were sterile in their mannerisms, rough with their touch and for the rest of my life, age 23 until now I've never seen a male or an OB, midwivery a dying art of giving life. Sorry DO.'s and MD's, hubris isn't attractive.
It appears to me the only instruments my children required for birth was a hockey stick, primo skates, cameras, actors, film screens and a Mom who nursed both, loved them as they were raised without borders, hate, racism, or fear. Men it appears you certainly have an almost pathological interest in instruments that are used to at times save women and their children, yet I pose a question, why as men do the majority of you feel because you're MD's you've the right to make decisions for us, for our health, our bodies, and find it difficult to comprehend that women know their bodies much better than the majority of male OB's? Sell medical instruments else where, allow us the choice to tell you what we feel is going on with our pregnancies, ovarian problems, cysts, PID, etcetera, and listen to us, leave your wealthy attitude parked outside your practice. Peace be with all of you...

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Jak Manson said...

Wow, a gynecologist and a obstetric have a lot of different tools that they use. I have been wondering what exactly it was that they used to do the things that they do. Plus, with seeing how the tools over the years have changed is something to be happy and excited about. That means they can get the job done quicker and less painful as well.
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Sylvia Sanderson said...

Whoa, those are some scary looking tools! We are looking into obstetric centers. What do you recommend when finding a facility that will be best for you?
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Gerald Vonberger said...

Great information! This is a field that is extremely helpful. It was enjoyable reading and learning about these instruments and their uses. It puts my mind at ease know about this. Thank you.

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Anonymous said...

This is really helpful and systematic! Thanks a lot. :)

Paul Herman said...

I've always wondered about the types of instruments that are used in gynecology. It's really interesting to learn about different types of medical equipment used for different areas of medical practice. I'm currently a medical student working on my undergrad. I've been thinking about the type of medicine that I would like to specialize in. Gynecology and obstetrics has always been an interest of mine. I hope that I will soon get a doctorate so that I can work as a licensed gynecologist.

Christina jameston said...

I had no Idea there were so many tools used for gynecology. My sister just found out she is pregnant. I wonder if she has gone in for a visit to a gynecologist yet.

Kavitha N said...

Uesful article...

Abdul Rafay Hasan said...

thank u so much

jwaynebest said...

A good friend of mine has recently graduated from medical school. He was telling that he's worked really hard for many years to become a doctor. Now, he is thinking about becoming specialized in gynecology.

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