- A 45 year old woman presents to the ER with severe upper abdominal pain with vomiting. The pain is focused in epigastrium radiating to the back. There is no history of chronic epigastric pain. Which of the following are the most likely predisposing factors for this condition?
a. H. pylori infection and excess gastric acid secretion
b. Gallstone or alcohol use
c. Obesity and high serum cholesterol
d. Stress and cigarette use
e. Hepatitis B and D co-infection
- A 56 year old obese female presents to ER after being found unconscious by her daughter. Paramedics report that the female is found in stuporous condition covered with vomit. On arrival at ER, she is clammy and her BP is 85/50mmHg. Her serum amylase is raised. Which of the following is the most likely cause of hypotension?
a. Alpha cell tumor of pancreas
b. Ectopic pancreas
c. Acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis
d. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma
- A 51 year old male diagnosed with Decompensated Chronic Liver Disease suddenly starts vomiting blood and eventually loses consciousness. His wife finds him lying on the bedroom floor. He has no prior history of hematemesis, bleeding diathesis and had not been vomiting prior to the appearance of the blood. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this man’s presentation?
b. Esophageal varices
c. Mallory weiss tear
d. Plummer Winson syndrome
e. Zenker’s diverticulum
- A 45 year old man presents with malaise,anorexia and vomiting to emergency room. The physician notices slight jaundice. Blood examination shows marked elevation of ALT and AST with AST/ALT ratio being 2.5. Alkaline phosphatase is near normal. Serum Copper and Iron are normal.histopathological reports show Mallory bodies in hepatocytes. Liver damage from which of the following diseases most likely accounts for these findings?
a. Biliary cirrhosis
b. Viral hepatitis
c. Alcoholic hepatitis
e. Wilson’s disease
- A 30 year old married woman presents to gynaecology OPD for routine checkup. She is taking Oral Contraceptive Pills for contraception for the last 4 years. She reports slight discomfort in the right hypochrondrium.Alpha protein level is essentially within normal limits. Ultrasound shows a space occupying lesion. She is physically fine otherwise. This lesion is most likely
a. Hepatocellular carcinoma
b. Hepatic adenoma
d. Hepatic amebiasis
e. Echinococcus granulosus cyst
- A 65 year old male presents with complaint of right upper quadrant pain. He was diagnosed HCV 20 years back. He also gives a history of ill health, fever, decreased appetite and fatigue. Biopsy specimen shows presence of bile and atypical lymphocytes. Apart from CT scan and other tests which tumor marker you will order to support your diagnosis?
a. Beta HCG
b. Carcino-embryonic antigen
c. Alpha feto protein
- A 12 year old male child presents with pitting edema, ascites and prolonged bleeding from wound sites. His biological parents are not known and he was adopted from orphanage. His abdominal Ultrasound reveals cirrhosis and viral serology for HBV and HCV comes out as negative. What is the most likely cause of cirrhosis in children of his age?
a. Wilson’s disease
b. Gaucher’s disease
c. Alpha 1 Antitrypsin deficiency
d. Primary Biliary cirrhosis
- A 30 year old male presents with dementia, Hemiballism and de-arranged liver enzymes. On further evaluation his abdominal Ultrasound shows cirrhosis of the liver. His Viral serology is negative. What is the most likely next finding in this patient?
a. Periodic Acid Schiff Stain shows red cytoplasmic granules in hepatocytes.
b. Kayser Fleisher rings in cornea
c. Highly increased Alpha feto proteins
d. Antimitochondrial antibodies in blood
e. Central cyanosis
- A 3 year old boy is brought to ER in a comatose condition. He had an episode of viral infection for which he was given aspirin by his mother to relieve fever. But his condition deteriorated and later he was brought to ER. His blood samples are taken and deranged liver enzymes are found. Most probably his diagnosis is:
a. Alpha 1 anti-trypsin deficiency
b. Reye Syndrome
c. Wilson’s disease
d. Neonatal cholestasis
e. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
- A 26 year old malnourished female presents to medicine OPD with mild abdominal discomfort in Right hypochondrium. On taking further history,she has had diarrhea for 2 weeks. Ultrasound abdomen shows space occupying lesion. Biopsy specimen shows abscess. Most likely cause of this liver abscess is:
a. E. coli
b. Klebsiella sp.
c. Entamoeba histolytica.
d. Acute hepatitis
e. Echinococcus granulosus cyst
- A 25 year old man had been experiencing intermittent diarrhea which, over years, progressed to severe diarrhea, alternating with constipation, rectal bleeding, and passage of mucus. On physical examination, the abdomen is tender over the left iliac fossa . Stools examination fails to reveal parasites. Colonoscopy demonstrates inflammation limited to the rectum, with no higher lesions. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
a. Celiac Disease
b. Crohn Disease
c. Hirschprung Disease
d. Tropical sprue
e. Ulcerative colitis
- Exploratory laparotomy of a patient with an acute abdomen demonstrates a several foot long loop of small intestine with a dark red-to-brown, edematous appearance.The patient has a history of atrial fibrillation. The lesion ends abruptly on both the distal and proximal edges. Which of the following diagnosis is suggested by this appearance?
a. Adenocarcinoma of the colon
b. Crohn disease
c. Ulcerative colitis
d. Ischemic bowel disease
- A 60 year old man presents to his physician because of progressive dysphagia, first to solids and then to liquids. Endoscopy reveals a large fungating mass 2cm above the Gastroesophageal junction. Biopsy of the mass shows that the glands have extended into muscular layer and contain large hyperchromatic nuclei. A diagnosis of esophageal adenocarcinoma is made. Which of the following conditions can result in the development of this lesion?
a. Esophageal rings
b. Esophageal webs
c. Reflux esophagitis
e. Sliding hiatal hernia
- A 65 year old man develops peri-umbilical pain which then shifted to the right iliac fossa. On physical examination, his temperature is 38C rectally and his abdomen is tender. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
a. Acute Appendicitis
- A 57 year old woman with anemia is found to have a decreased Vitamin B12 level. Antibodies to intrinsic factor are identified. Levels of all other vitamins are within normal limits. Which of the following is most likely to be associated with this condition?
a. Duodenal ulcer
b. Ulcerative colitis
c. Dietary Vit. B12 deficiency
d. Atrophic gastritis
- A 54 year old woman complains of burning pain in her epigastrium and vomiting a few days after she started taking medication for her rheumatoid arthritis. Which of the following forms of gastritis would most likely be found in this patient?
a. Acute gastritis
b. Chronic antral gastritis
c. Chronic fundal gastritis
d. Hypertrophic gastritis
e. Lympocytic gastritis
- A 32 year old woman presents with complaints of several months of burning substernal chest pain exacerbated by large meals, cigarettes and caffeine. Her symptoms are worse when she lies on her back, especially while sleeping at night. Antacids often improve her symptoms. This patient is at risk for which of the following conditions?
a. Cardiac ischemia
b. Columnar metaplasia of distal esophagus
c. Esophageal web
d. Leiomyoma of the esophagus
e. Mallory Weiss lesion in the esophagus
- A patient develops anemia and weight loss and slight abdominal discomfort. On questioning, the patient is a known case of chronic gastritis. Which of the following type of malignancy is most strongly associated with this patient’s condition?
a. Gastric lymphoma
b. Intestinal type of gastric adenocarcinoma
c. Diffuse type of gastric adenocarcinoma
d. Squamous type of oesophageal carcinoma
e. Adenocarcinoma of oesophagus
- A 50 year old man with a history of alcohol abuse is found to have elevated liver enzymes. A liver biopsy shows the microscopic features of fatty change (steatosis). If the patient abstains from further drinking, this condition will most likely evolve into which of thee following?
a. Acute hepatitis
b. Chronic hepatitis
c. Complete regression
d. Hyperplastic nodules
e. Malignant degeneration
- A patient presents to a physician complaining of recurrent episodic diarrhea, triggered by eating too much or drinking alcohol. His wife states that “he turns as red as a beet and starts wheezing” during these episodes. Chest X-Ray demonstrates a lung mass. Which of the following would be the most likely cause of his symptoms?
a. Carcinoid tumor
b. Primary TB
c. Recurrent TB
d. Lung cancer
e. Superior vena cava syndrome
- A 40 year old woman with polycythemia vera develops progressive severe ascites and tender hepatomegaly over a period of several months. Liver function tests are near normal. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
a. Acute hepatitis
b. Hepatic vein obstruction
d. Chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis
e. Carcinoid syndrome
- A 10 year old boy complains of intermittent abdominal pain. Endoscopy fails to demonstrate peptic ulcer or chronic gastritis. The clinician suspects that the patient may have a heterotopic rest of gastric mucosa that is producing enough acid to cause ulceration of adjacent mucosa. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
a. Ectopic pancreatic tissue
b. Meckel’s diverticulum
c. False diverticulum
e. Cancer of the cecum
- A 65 year old woman dies of metastatic liver cancer. The liver at autopsy shows a multinodular vascular tumor that histologically is composed of anastomosing channels lined by anaplastic endothelial cells. The liver parenchyma between tumor nodules appears normal. The histopathologist gives a preliminary diagnosis of angiosarcoma of the liver. Which of the following risk factors is associated with this form of liver cancer?
c. Exposure to vinyl chloride
d. Hepatitis B virus infection
e. Oral contraceptive use
- A 65 year old man presents to a physician because of a palpable mass immediately above the left clavicle. Biopsy of the mass demonstrates metastatic adenocarcinoma in a lymph node. Which of the following organs should be most strongly suspected as containing the primary tumor?
b. Large bowel
- Chronic Gastritis is associated with:
a. Helicobacter pylori
b. Contaminated food
c. Drug poisoning
e. Schistosoma infection
- Major site of Peptic Ulcer is :
- Inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with:
b. Autoimmune disorders
c. Refined diet
d. Psycho – somatic factors
e. Elderly age
- The granulomas of Crohns’s disease are differentiated from granulomas of tuberculosis due to:
a. Presence of necrosis
b. Presence of casseation
c. Presence of giant cells
d. Presence of lymphocytes
e. Presence of epitheloid cells
- Which of the following features of the polyps of the colon indicates a better prognosis?
a. Villous histology
b. Large size
c. Higher degrees of dysplasia
e. Proximal location
- Which of the following is a major predisposing factor for the development of pseudomembranous colitis?
a. Young age
c. Antibiotic use
d. Refined diet
- A 6 year old boy presents with abdominal pain and vomiting. The pain first started in the peri umbilical region and then shifted to the right lower quadrant. His temperature is 102F and pulse is 110. A laparotomy is performed and his appendix is removed. What will be observed if the appendix is examined by the histopathologist?
a. Lymphocytic infiltrate
c. Neutrophilic infiltrate
d. Perforation of the appendix
- Schistosoma hematobium is associated with:
a. Adenocarcinoma of the kidney
b. Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder
c. Hepatocellular carcinoma
d. Colon cancer
e. Ureteric colic
- Barrets esophagus is a predisposing factor of
a. Squamous cell carcinoma
b. Adeno carcinoma
c. Basal cell carcinoma
d. Gastric carcinoma
e. Esophagus reflex disease
- A 50yr old man who is on NSAIDs for his heart problem for last 4yrs and smokes 2 pack cigarette per day last 10-15yrs presents in OPD with the c/o recurrent epigastric pain 15-20 min after taking meal which is relieved by vomiting. What is the diagnosis?
a. Coelic disease
b. Peptic ulcer disease
c. Gastric ca
d. Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease
- A 42yrs old man presents in OPD with the complaints of passage of abnormally bulky, frothy, greasy, yellow stools for 3 days accompanied by weight loss anorexia, abdominal distention and flatus. On biopsy small intestine was found to be laden with distended macrophages in the lamina propria. What is the most likely diagnosis?
a. Whipples disease
b. Tropical sprue
c. Celiac disease
- What is another name for apthous ulcer?
c. Bed sore
d. Canker sores
e. Oral candidiasis
- A 60yrs old lady presents with a small swelling at the angle of the jaw for last 2 years which is painless. On exam it is non-tender and palpated as discrete mass. Surgeon wants to excise the lesion but he is worried about the facial nerve that may get damaged during the excision. What is most likely the diagnosis?
b. Warthin tumor
d. Papillary cystadenoma
e. Pleomorphic adenoma
- Classic lesion of crohns disease is
a. Skip lesion
b. Flask shaped ulcer
d. Crypt abscess
e. Macrophages laden lamina propria
- Deep ulcers, marked lymphoid reaction, fibrosis, serositis, granuloma mass and fistulas are the features of
a. Ulcerative colitis
b. Crohns disease
c. Intestinal polyposis
d. Malabsorbtion syndrome
e. Colorectal carcinoma
- Most common colorectal carcinoma is
a. Squamous carcinoma
b. Basal cell carcinoma
e. Mucinous carcinoma
- A 70yrs old lady who is case of colon cancer. On biopsy, her cancer as invaded the muscularis propria. Two pericolic nodes are involved with no metastasis. What is the TNM stage of her colon cancer?
- What is the histological criteria for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis
a. Cytological atypia
b. Frond like villiform extensions of mucosa
c. Mucosal atrophy
d. Submucosal fibrosis
e. Neutrophilic infiltration of muscularis propria
- Identify the risk factors associated with gastric carcinoma
a. Family history
c. Fatty food
d. Sedentary life style
e. More use of fruits in diet
- The most common fungal infection of the oral cavity in immunocompromised individuals is:
- Thrush (candidiasis)
- A department of pathology reviews pathology reports of colorectal adenomas over the past 15 years and correlates them with clinical data. What set of factors is most likely to correlate with the risk of developing colorectal carcinoma?
a. Polyp size, histologic type, severity of dysplasia
b. Polyp size and anatomic location
c. Patient age, polyp size
d. Polyp size and gender of patient
e. Patients age and histologic type
- During the pathogenesis of Pancreatitis which enzyme after activation from its proenzyme form can activate other enzymes and clotting, Kinin and compliment systems?
e. Alpha amylase
- An outbreak of acute hepatitis in the months of July and August is traced to the mixing of sewage with drinking water. The patients had jaundice, arthralgias and low-grade fever. Transaminases were markedly raised. None of the patients developed chronic disease. Only two patients died during the outbreak, both were pregnant females. What is the likeliest cause of this outbreak?
- A 41year old man presents to his physician complaining of swollen ankles. He states that he never had this problem before. Physical examination demonstrates marked lower extremity edema and periorbital swelling. His pulse is strong and regular. Urine dipstick is 4+ positive for protein but negative for blood and glucose. A 24 hour urine collection demonstrates proteinuria if 6 gm / day.Spike like protrusion of GBM matrix is seen on histology Which of the following is the most likely cause of this man’s problem?
a. Berger’s disease
b. Diabetic nephropathy
c. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
d. Membranous glomerulonephritis
e. Minimal change disease
- A 6 year old child develops a large erythematous rash around the site of mosquito bite. One month later she is taken to a pediatrician because of a puffy face and swollen ankles. The scanty urine sample has a reddish brown hue and contains both Red Blood Cells and proteins. Which of the following distinctive features will be most likely to be seen on renal biopsy?
a. Fusion of podocyte foot processes
b. IgA in the mesangium
c. Linear IgG deposits
d. Onion skinning of renal arterioles
e. Sub epithelial electron dense humps
- An IV drug abuser develops an aggressive form of nephrotic syndrome that does not respond to steroids. A renal biopsy is performed. Which of the following histological diagnosis will most likely be made from the biopsy tissue?
- Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
- IgA nephropathy
- Lipoid nephrosis
- Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
- Membranous glomerulonephritis
GOOD LUCK!(Paper setters: Prof. Dr. Abbas Hayat, Dr. Homera Niazi, Dr. Nabeel M. Syed, Dr. Ali Mujtaba, Dr. Ahmed Salman Qadir, )
SEQs from GIT, Liver, Kidney
CVS and Haematology MCQs
MCQs from Pathology of Lungs, Male, Female Genital and Breast Diseases,Musculoskeletal, Bones and joints,