What Is Heart Attack???
A heart attack occurs if the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a section of heart muscle suddenly becomes blocked. If blood flow isn't restored quickly, the section of heart muscle begins to die.
Heart attacks most often occur as a result of coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease. CHD is a condition in which a waxy substance called plaque (plak) builds up inside the coronary arteries. These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your heart.
When plaque builds up in the arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis (ath-er-o-skler-O-sis). The buildup of plaque occurs over many years.
Eventually, an area of plaque can rupture (break open) inside of an artery. This causes a blood clot to form on the plaque's surface. If the clot becomes large enough, it can mostly or completely block blood flow through a coronary artery.
If the blockage isn't treated quickly, the portion of heart muscle fed by the artery begins to die. Healthy heart tissue is replaced with scar tissue. This heart damage may not be obvious, or it may cause severe or long-lasting problems.
BEFORE GOING TO FURTHER DETAILS, HAVE A LOOK ON THE NORMAL HEART;
|NORMAL HUMAN HEART|
Other Names for a Heart Attack
* Myocardial infarction (MI)
* Acute myocardial infarction (AMI)
* Acute coronary syndrome
* Coronary thrombosis
* Coronary occlusion
Causes Of Heart Attack:
- Smoking cigarettes,
- high blood pressure,
- elevated cholesterol,
- diabetes mellitus,
- elevated LDL cholesterol,
- elevated levels of blood catecholamines (adrenaline),
- other mechanical and biochemical forces,
- Coronary Heart Disease,
- Coronary Artery Spasm,
- Emotional stress or pain,
- Exposure to extreme cold,
Signs And Symptoms:
Signs And Symptoms Include following;
- Chest Pain or Discomfort
- Upper body discomfort in one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw, or upper part of the stomach
- Shortness of breath, which may occur with or before chest discomfort
- Nausea (feeling sick to your stomach), vomiting, light-headedness or sudden dizziness, or breaking out in a cold sweat
- Sleep problems, fatigue (tiredness), or lack of energy
- fullness, and/or squeezing sensation of the chest
- Jaw pain, toothache, headache
- Shortness of breath
- Heartburn and/or indigestion
- Arm pain (more commonly the left arm, but may be either arm)
- Upper back pain
- General malaise (vague feeling of illness)
- Symptoms also may include sleep problems, fatigue (tiredness), and lack of energy.
- Heart failure
- Ventricular fibrillation
- Blood Tests
- Coronary Angiography
Early treatment for a heart attack can prevent or limit damage to the heart muscle. Acting fast, at the first symptoms of a heart attack, can save your life. Medical personnel can begin diagnosis and treatment even before you get to the hospital.
Certain treatments usually are started right away if a heart attack is suspected, even before the diagnosis is confirmed. These include:
- Oxygen therapy
- Aspirin to thin your blood and prevent further blood clotting
- Nitroglycerin to reduce your heart's workload and improve blood flow through the coronary arteries
- Treatment for chest pain
- Thrombolytic medicines
Those Who at high risk should check;
- High blood pressure
- High blood cholesterol
- Overweight and obesity
- An unhealthy diet (for example, a diet high in saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, and sodium)
- Lack of routine physical activity
- High blood sugar due to insulin resistance or diabetes