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Monday, December 6, 2010

Overview Of History Of Pharmacy - Types Of Pharmacy

Primitive Era, Middle Ages, Modern Era Of Pharmacy and Its Types

Primitive Era

Since 200 B.C. ,pharmacy has been inseparatble from mankind,as it is
useful for the use of basic need i.e. Health from primitive to date.
Man made his way to protect himself from diseases as best as possible
reaching out towards natural resources.

Millions of illiterate people used to see patients as a victim of evil
deeds who usually had psychiatric problem and went undiagnosed e.g. in
Alkaloids poisoning which was hallucinogenic mimics mental ill
health. People considered these elements as a victim of God's anger
and disease as a punishment of their sin. In this process,persons who
were priest went through many herbs which were useful along with the
faith in religion. Religion was one of significant stand in the
history of therapeutics in the primitive and Middle Ages. The
traceable history of Pharmacy from 2000 BC Babylonian and Egyptians
produced tablets that are known as oldest pharmaceutical record. The
river vally people knew basic crude forms of drug administration
employed even today e.g. Gargles, suppositories, inhalation, poultices
and ointments and many different drugs like dates,garlic,castor
oil,bean etc. In primitive era,pharmacy and medicine were not two
distincts fields. However in Babylonian era,the two were separated in
different areas. As Greece also progressed, it was Greek intellectuals
who sought logical explainations and this was exemplified by the
followers of Hippocrates. They followed the scientific methods of
observations, classifications and rejection of unbeneficial practices
of drugs. In the 7th Century BC Aesculapius superceded Apollo as god
of healling. The staff of Aesculapius entwined by a sacred serpent
emerged as an official symbol of medicine around the world. His
daughter Hyggea entwined by a serpent and holding a bowl emerged as a
symbol of pharmacy.

Middle Ages

In the middle ages, Christianity prospered leaving behind
Aesculapius school of thought,Greek and Roman treatise were preserved.
In the areas of Far East, Japan, China And subcontinental Buddhist
Monks cultivated medicinal plants outsite their monastries. Galen
experimented on compound drugs. His publications were completed by
Gorio in the 11th century. Even now Galen's doctrines are in practice
and are known as Galenic Pharmacy. Muslim scholars made valueable
contributions to the knowledge of medicine and did better than
Europeans. Their methods were later translated into Latin in 11th and
12th century. By 1240 A.D. Health legislation provided separation of
pharmacy from medicine.

Modern Era

With the passage of time, medicine moved from Arabic school of
thought to the Europeans. In the meantime, Columbus reached America. A
year after him,a Swiss scientist, 1529 A.D. Introduced the idea of
human body as a chemical laboratory. In America medical College Of
Philadelphia taught pharmacy to pharmacists only and thereafter
pharmacy became different entirely.
At present, it is taken up by the multinational comanies who
support research and prepare drugs in the most sophisticated and
scientific way.


It is a branch of Pharmacology, which deals with the preparation,
compounding, dispensing, and administration of drugs to the patients
with proper instructions for use. The word pharmacy is derived from "
Pharmacon " meaning medicine or drug.

Types of Pharmacy

1. Official Pharmacy

In this type of pharmacy, drugs are prepared according to formulas
and directions laid by in the pharmacopoeias and official
pharmaceutical books e.g. British Pharmaceutical Codex, British
Pharmacopoeia, United States Pharmacopopoeia abbreviated respectively
as B.P.C, B.P, and U.S.P.

2. Extemporaneous pharmacy

In this type, pharmaceutical preparations are done by non-official
codex like formulas of some ointments not given in any official codex
or books.

3. Galenical Pharmacy

It deals with making of pharmaceutical preparation when no
chemical reaction is involved like some injections, infusions, drips
and spirits ( Having no multiple chemical drugs )

4. Chemical Pharmacy

It is branch, which deals with chemical preparation of drugs. Most
of the drugs are prepared by this method now a days.

5. Dispensing Pharmacy

It deals with the dispensing, compounding, and techniques
prescribed in the drugs and its direction for use.


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